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- 30 Kasım 2011 16:58

- 01 Aralık 2011 01:41
**Ensar**

**Cevap:**Gabriel Cramer

Gabriel Cramer (31 de julio de 1704 - 4 de enero de 1752) fue un matemático suizo nacido en Ginebra.

Mostró gran precocidad en matemática y ya a los 18 recibe su doctorado y a los 20 era profesor adjunto de matemática. Profesor de matemática de la Universidad de Ginebra durante el periodo 1724-27. En 1750 ocupó la cátedra de filosofía en dicha universidad. En 1731 presentó ante la Academia de las Ciencias de París, una memoria sobre las múltiples causas de la inclinación de las órbitas de los planetas.

Carátula del libro Introduction a l’analyse de lignes courbes algébriques

Editó las obras de Johann Bernoulli (1742) y de Jacques Bernoulli (1744) y el Comercium epistolarum de Leibniz. Su obra fundamental fue la Introduction à l’analyse des courbes algébriques (1750), en la que se desarrolla la teoría de las curvas algebraicas según los principios newtonianos, demostrando que una curva de grado n viene dada por N puntos situados sobre ella,1 donde N viene dado por la expresión:

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**1704-1752**

**Swiss Mathematician**

The name Gabriel Cramer is associated with Cramer's rule and Cramer's paradox, as well as with the introduction of the concept of utility to mathematics. Yet perhaps Cramer's greatest contributions to learning emerged from his supportof other talented contemporaries, specifically in his work as editor of their writings.

Gabriel Cramer. (The Granger Collection, Ltd. Reproduced with permission.)

Born in Geneva on July 31, 1704, Cramer was the son of Jean, a physician, and Anne Mallet Cramer. He came from a family of three brothers, one of whom became a doctor and the other a professor of law. By the age of 18, Cramer had earned his doctorate with a dissertation on the qualities of sound, and two years later was appointed co-chair of mathematics at the Académie de la Rive. He shared both the position and the salary with Giovanni Ludovico Calandrini, and the two men broke new ground by allowing students who knew no Latin to recite in French instead.

Encouraged by the Académie to travel as a means of expanding his knowledge, in 1727 Cramer spent five months in Basel, where he became acquainted with Johann Bernoulli (1667-1748). Over the two years that followed, he visited London, Leiden, and Paris. Five years after his return to Geneva in 1729, Cramer was appointed full chair of the department after Calandrini received an appointment to a philosophy professorship.

Along with his brothers, Cramer had long taken part in local politics, and he likewise displayed a sense of community spirit where the world of mathematics was concerned. Among the mathematicians and thinkers whose work he edited were Johann and his brother Jakob Bernoulli (1654-1705), as well as the German philosopher and mathematician Christian Wolff (1679-1754). Thus he helped spread these men's ideas, and contributed greatly to their success.

In 1750, Cramer was appointed professor of philosophy at the Académie (Calandrini had left his post to serve the Swiss government), and published the four-volume*Introduction à l'analyse des lignes courbes algébriques.*The work contained Cramer's rule, which governed the solutions of linear equations, and Cramer's paradox, which clarified a proposition first put forth by Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) regarding points and cubic curves. In addition, Cramer introduced the concept of utility, a key principle today linking probability theory and mathematical economics.

A year after publishing his most important mathematical work, Cramer suffered a fall from a carriage. The scholar had long been overworked and suffering from fatigue, so his doctor recommended that he rest in the south of France. On January 4, 1952, however, Cramer died on his way to the town of Bagnoles.

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