Nâzım Hikmet (RAN) (1902-1963)
Nâzım Hikmet RAN İnglizce BiyografilerForum Alev
He was born in Salonica (1902). He completed his primary education in İstanbul at Göztepe Taşmektep, primary section of Galatasaray High School (1914) and Nişantaşı Numune School, and received his secondary education at Heybeliada Naval School (1918) where he attended upon the recommendation of Naval Forces Commander Cemal Paşa, who listened and very much admired his poem "The Words of a Naval Officer" that he wrote when he was only 12. After graduating from the Naval School, Nâzım Hikmet was assigned to Hamidiye Cruiser as a trainee deck officer, he caught cold and pleurisy during a night watch (1919), and as he could not recover his health, he was discharged from military as disabled (1920).
After leaving military, being very sorry about the occupation of İstanbul, Nâzım Hikmet went to Anatolia to participate in the National Struggle and served as a teacher at Bolu High School for a short time (1921). The poet, interested in the Russian revolution, went to Moscow from Batum after some time and studied economy and social science at the Easter University (1922-1924). He joined Aydınlık magazine after his return home, passed to Russia again when he was informed that a verdict of sentence "in default" was given against him because of his poems published there, returned to Turkey upon the enforcement of amnesty and kept under detention at Hopa prison for sometime (1928).
Nâzım Hikmet then settled in İstanbul, worked at various newspapers and magazines and film studios, published his first poetry books and wrote his plays (1928-1932). Meanwhile, he was arrested again and gained his freedom upon the amnesty law that was put into effect due to the 10th year of the Republic. He worked as an article writer and editor at Akşam, Son Posta and Tan newspapers with Orhan Selim nickname (1933).
He was prosecuted with the indictment that he made propaganda among the students of Army War Academy and sentenced to 15 years by the Military Court of War Academy and subsequently to 20 years by the Military Court of Naval Command, so as to be totally 35 years and his sentence was reduced to 28 years and four months under articles 68 and 77 of Turkish Penal Code (1938). Following the great campaign launched by the intellectuals to include him within the scope of the amnesty law introduced after the Democrat Party came to power (1950), the jurists made recourse to legal remedies and meanwhile, Nâzım Hikmet commenced a hunger strike in the prison. Eventually, the remaining sentence of Nâzım Hikmet was excused and the poet gained his freedom after 13 years of imprisonment.
A decree for military service was taken for the poet, who could not find work and publish books after being released, and Nâzım Hikmet, 50 years old and ill, was in a very hard condition. Very afraid of being killed, the poet accepted the recommendation of Refik Erduran (reputed playwright and journalist of later times) and left Turkey by getting on a Romanian-flag vessel navigating in the Black Sea via a motorboat by his help.
Nâzım Hikmet died in Moscow (3rd June 1963).